John McKenna wrote:This was discussed at the bottom of page 2 and the top of page 3 of this thread. I'd just add that the word 'flank' exists in both Old English and Old French and it's origin is in the Anglo-Saxon and Frankish languages, which both belong to the Germanic family.
My apologies for going over old ground earlier ...
I browsed the thread and only found a few terms discussed, so went through them all.
John McKenna wrote:The real question is - how and when did the 'loan words' that are obviously present in Russian chess literature make their appearance?
That is very difficult to answer.
For example, the Russian for chess is 'shakhmaty' and that is Persian in origin. So, did that word arrive with the game via the Caspian-Volga trade route, which in the 9th & 10th centuries reached as far as Baghdad? Or did it and the game arrive later by some other route?
The first published chess book in the Russian language, in 1791, was a translation of Benjamin Franklin's Morals of Chess (translated as - Pravila dlya Shashechnoi Igry). A copy of such a work might give a snapshot of the state of Russian chess terminology - with its foreign loan words - at the time and provide a basis for further meaningful discussion.
This is of course only too true, but we have to bear in mind that chess has developed greatly in the last 200-250 years or so, and this is also likely to be reflected in chess terminology and its close connection with military strategy and tactics, and its development. Considering the development of languages, very few terms, apart from the names of the pieces themselves (because they're most basic, cf numbers and words for natural features such as sun, moon etc.), are likely to have survived the introduction of the game in any particular culture or country. Furthermore, if we consider that chess had reached Europe, including Russia, by the year 1000 AD, it's highly unlikely that a term such as 'flank', would have been imported directly in its Anglo-Saxon form 'hlanc'.
The Persian influence is not limited to Russian, in all the Germanic languages the name of the game comes from the Persian word 'shah' (English 'chess', German 'schach', Danish 'skak', Norwegian 'sjakk', Swedish 'schack' etc.) rather than the original Sanskrit 'chaturanga' (and then later as 'shatranj' in Persian), which is the origin for the name of the game in Spanish ('ajedrez') and Portuguese ('xadrez').
If I were to hazard a guess, the main source of influence for Russian chess terminology would be German because of the great German and Jewish minorities in the cities of the Western part of the Russian Empire in the 18th and 19th centuries.
John McKenna wrote:(Welcome back, by the way, I enjoyed reading some of your posts on here that were made before I joined.
Thanks! I greatly enjoy the discussions here, although they tend to get side-tracked very easily ...